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PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests are fast, highly accurate methods of diagnosing certain infectious diseases and genetic changes. The test works by looking for the DNA or RNA of pathogens (diseases) or abnormal cells in a sample.
DNA is the genetic material that contains the instructions and information for all living things.
RNA is another type of genetic material. It contains information copied from DNA and involved in making proteins.
Most viruses and other pathogens contain DNA or RNA.
Unlike many other tests, PCR tests can find evidence of disease in the earliest stages of infection. Other tests can miss early signs of disease because there aren't enough viruses, bacteria, or other pathogens in the sample, or your body doesn't have enough time to develop an antibody response. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to attack foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria. PCR tests can detect disease when you have only a very small amount of the pathogen in your body.
During a PCR test, small amounts of genetic material in a sample are copied multiple times. The duplication process is called magnification. If there are pathogens in the sample, amplification will make them easier to detect.
Other names: polymerase chain reaction, rtPCR, reverse transcription PCR, qPCR, quantitative PCR, real-time PCR
How are they used?
PCR tests are used to:
Diagnose certain infectious diseases.
Identify genetic changes that may lead to disease.
Finds small numbers of cancer cells that may be missed in other types of tests.
How do they work?
PCR tests work by:
Take blood, saliva, mucus, or tissue samples
The sample will contain your own DNA and possibly the DNA of pathogens or cancer cells.
Put the sample in a dedicated machine. An enzyme called polymerase is added to the sample. This results in a copy of the sample.
The copying process is repeated several times. After about an hour, billions of copies were made. If a virus or pathogen is present, it will be displayed on the machine.
Certain viruses, including COVID-19, are made up of RNA rather than DNA. For these viruses, RNA must be turned into DNA before replication. This process is called reverse transcription PCR (rtPCR).
PCR and rtPCR check for the presence of pathogens. Another type of PCR called quantitative PCR (qPCR) measures the number of pathogens in a sample. qPCR can be performed concurrently with PCR or rtPCR.
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